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Jan 1, 2022 · The SC alloy is converted into a fine powder by hydrogen decrepitation and then jet-milling (JM) to produce a fine powder consisting almost entirely of single crystal particles of the Nd 2 Fe 14 B phase. This powder is then filled into fills molds and pressed while a magnetic field is applied to orient the individual particles. The compacted ...

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The powders were produced by hydrogen decrepitation and on heating, hydrogen evolution occurred in two stages: firstly from the matrix phase (~170 ~ and then from the neodymium-rich phase (350-750 ~ The neodymium-rich phase melted at ~630 ~ and no significant microstructural changes occurred below this temperature.(2020) Piotrowicz et al. Journal of Mining and Metallurgy, Section B: Metallurgy. Rare earth magnets based upon neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) are employed in many high tech applications, including hard disk drives (HDDs). The key elements in manufacturing NdFeB magnets are rare earth elements (REE... The room temperature hydrogenation causes decrepitation of the material, where the Nd-rich material forms NdH 2.7 and the Nd 2 Fe 14 B matrix grains form an interstitial hydrogen solution. The material expands by ∼5% and because of its brittle nature and differential expansion, undergoes decrepitation [16].Oct 1, 2015 · Hydrogen is already used to process cast NdFeB in the Hydrogen Decrepitation (HD) process. The HD process is used extensively to reduce bulk (or strip) cast NdFeB ingots to friable, hydrogenated NdFeB granules/powder, prior to the production of jet milled powder which is then aligned, compressed and sintered to form fully dense sintered magnets ...

Semantic Scholar extracted view of "A study of the effects of the addition of various amounts of Cu to sintered NdFeB magnets" by O. Ragg et al. ... from an Nd/sub 17/-Fe/sub 76.5/-B/sub 5/-Cu/sub 1.5/ alloy by a two-step heat treatment at 1370 K and 870 K following hydrogen decrepitation (HD)-processing. …The hydrogen decrepitation (HD) behaviors of various forms of the permanent magnet alloy Nd 1 6 Fe 7 6 B 8 and stoichiometric composition Nd 11.8 Fe 82.3 B 5.9 have been investigated to provide background information on the production of sintered magnets by the HD process. The influence of the initial microstructures of the alloys on …

Jan 1, 2018 · High-temperature demagnetization can, however, cause melting of components, e.g., plastics, glue, etc. Hydrogen decrepitation (Table 8.3), a more efficient alternative, has been suggested for processing of HDDs [34], [35]. The NdFeB magnets absorb hydrogen, expanding in volume with about 5%, which causes breaking into coarse granules or powder. (2020) Piotrowicz et al. Journal of Mining and Metallurgy, Section B: Metallurgy. Rare earth magnets based upon neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) are employed in many high tech applications, including hard disk drives (HDDs). The key elements in manufacturing NdFeB magnets are rare earth elements (REE...

Permanent magnets produce magnetic fields and maintain the field even in the presence of an opposing magnetic field. They are widely used in electric machines, electronics, and medical devices. Part I reviews the conventional manufacturing processes for commercial magnets, including Nd-Fe-B, Sm-Co, alnico, and ferrite in cast and …The scrap sintered Nd–Fe–B magnets were recycled as the raw materials for bonded magnets using the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process. The HD powders have the lowest oxygen and hydrogen content by hydrogenation at 150 °C with 1 bar H2 pressure and dehydrogenation at 600 °C. The powders with the largest particle size (>380 μm) …Due to the high strength and very compact structure of sintered NdFeB magnets, hydrogen decrepitation is a necessary step to break down the magnet mass. On the other hand, the resin-bonded NdFeB magnets have very low strength and can be easily crushed by heating and removing the resin and epoxy used in their fabrication. 39. 3.In this paper it is demonstrated that hydrogen could play a vital role in this process. Fully dense sintered NdFeB-type magnets have been subjected to the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process. Nov 1, 2017 · Fig. 1. Illustration of the Hydrogen Decrepitation Press-Less Process (HD-PLP) recycling of anisotropic sintered NdFeB magnet. Passivated commercial N48M sintered magnets were used as starting material and hydrogen was applied to disintegrate the magnets inside a ball milling container. The hydride powder was both used directly and some powder ...

NdFeB ingot exposed to hydrogen atmosphere due to the changes of hydride lattice parameters cracks. The process called HDDR (Hydrogenation - Decrepitation -D...

Step #5 Hydrogen Decrepitation While the grains are very small from strip casting, the material from strip casting comes out of the caster in sheets that must be reduced to powder in order to make magnets. The next step after this is Hydrogen Decrepitation –a process that introduces hydrogen to purposely disintegrate the magnet material.

Apr 15, 2022 · An effective and complete processing route for the recycling of sintered Nd-Fe-B scrap magnets was proposed. Sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets were subjected to the Hydrogen Decrepitation (HD) process at various temperatures in the range of 50–300 °C, at two different pressures, 50 kPa and 200 kPa, followed by vacuum dehydrogenation in the range of 720–820 °C. The behavior of hydrogen absorption and release in hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process of Nd-Fe-B alloys were investigated. The results reveal that the reactivity and the amount of hydrogen absorption in HD process are related to the surface activity of the alloy so that the fresh and active surface has a higher efficiency. The presence of Nd-rich phase at the …(2020) Piotrowicz et al. Journal of Mining and Metallurgy, Section B: Metallurgy. Rare earth magnets based upon neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) are employed in many high tech applications, including hard disk drives (HDDs). The key elements in manufacturing NdFeB magnets are rare earth elements (REE... big drive towards recycling of NdFeB magnets due to supply constraints for rare earth metals. Workers at the University of Birmingham have previously shown that hydrogen …Fully dense, sintered NdFeB-type magnets have been subjected to the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process. The resultant powder has been subsequently …(2020) Piotrowicz et al. Journal of Mining and Metallurgy, Section B: Metallurgy. Rare earth magnets based upon neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) are employed in many high tech applications, including hard disk drives (HDDs). The key elements in manufacturing NdFeB magnets are rare earth elements (REE...

The hydrogen treatment of the Nd‐Fe‐B alloy ingots was found to produce magnet powders with good magnetic properties. Typical magnetic properties of these powders are as follows; 4πIs = 9.5 kG, Br = 7.7 kG, iHc = 9.4 kOe, and (BH)max = 12.2 MGOe. Microstructural studies of these powders showed that they are made of fine …Hydrogen Decrepitation (HD) is a suitable method for recycling sintered neodymium-iron-boron magnets obtained from electronic scrap into a coercive powder [2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9]. ... Anisotropic ...Hydrogen decrepitation (HD) is based on the selective synthesis of neodymium hydrides though the reaction of hydrogen gas with neodymium located in the Nd-Fe-B magnet. …@article{osti_37277, title = {Hydrogen decrepitation of sintered NdFeB magnets}, author = {Stiller, C and Roth, S and Binner, A}, abstractNote = {The kinetics of the hydrogen absorption and desorption behavior of a NdFeB sintered magnet is studied. Hydrogenation at temperatures above 200 C is used to crumble the Nd-enriched phase. …Jul 14, 2000 · The decrepitation process and related changes in the sample temperature are analysed to explain the experimentally observed weight gain curve of a Nd–Fe–B sample due to hydrogen uptake. It is shown that the expansion of the specific surface resulting from decrepitation of the sample is the most important parameter controlling the hydrogen ... This way of powdering known as hydrogen decrepitation (HD) is a well-established stage of manufacturing technologies of sintered [2], [3] and bonded [4] Nd–Fe–B magnets. The interstitial hydrogen in the ferromagnetic Nd 2 Fe 14 B phase reduces significantly its anisotropy field H A. That is why desorption of hydrogen is necessary in …So exposure at LOW temperature to hydrogen leads the NdFeB pieces to react via intergranular fracturation (decrepitation), the mass of Nd2Fe14B grains forminfg a metal hydride with max ...

The initial step for manufacturing NdFeB plated permanent magnets in this unit process is NdFeB alloying and strip casting. NdFeB alloy is composed of 72% iron, 27% neodymium, and 1% boron from boron carbide (Sprecher et al., 2014). In order to stop free iron from forming, a small amount of iron formed between NdFeB crystals, the alloy is ...The intrinsic magnetic coercivity (H ci) of Nd‐Fe‐B‐based permanent magnet material is profoundly affected by hydrogen absorbed during the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process for producing anisotropic powders from bulk anisotropic hot‐deformed MAGNEQUENCH (MQ) magnets.Hydrogen (H) content and x‐ray diffraction …

Mar 1, 2019 · Fig. 1 shows the hydrogen decrepitation curves of Nd-Fe-B SC and SM at 288 K with different initial hydrogen pressure. Under the initial hydrogen pressure of 0.1–1 Mpa, the HD process composes of four stages of magnets surface activation, slow hydrogenation of Nd-rich grain boundary phase, quick hydrogenation of Nd 2 Fe 14 B main phase grains, and slow hydrogenation of inner part of the magnets. Sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets were subjected to the Hydrogen Decrepitation (HD) process at various temperatures in the range of 50-300°C, at two different pressures, 50 kPa and 200 kPa, followed by ...A study of the processing and characterisation of sintered NdFeB magnets made from recycled feed stock was undertaken. Initially the hydrogen decrepitated (HD) powder was investigated using two different milling techniques ball milling and burr milling. The powders were analysed with optical microscopy, with the aid of a magnetic field.Mar 1, 1985 · The hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process are studied in detail based on these results. The hydrogen absorption mechanism of Sm(CoFeCuZr) 7.6 alloy can be regarded as a hydrogen dissolution process without phase transformation. In addition, the existence of a large amount of fine grains in the SC has an adverse effect on the alignment, which can ... Sprecher, et al. [8] compared the environmental impact of producing virgin NdFeB magnets to producing recycled NdFeB magnets from waste computer hard disk drives (HDDs) using hydrogen decrepitation. The results showed that recycling in general was more favorable to the environment, and this was especially true for manual …Sep 14, 2000 · This way of powdering known as hydrogen decrepitation (HD) is a well-established stage of manufacturing technologies of sintered [2], [3] and bonded [4] Nd–Fe–B magnets. The interstitial hydrogen in the ferromagnetic Nd 2 Fe 14 B phase reduces significantly its anisotropy field H A. That is why desorption of hydrogen is necessary in order ... The basic compound for most Neodymium magnets is Nd2Fe14B. In practice, the actual chemical reaction used can be more complicated. A commonly used reaction is: 57 Fe + 8 B + 10 Fe2O3 + 7.5 Nd2O3 ...Permanent magnets produce magnetic fields and maintain the field even in the presence of an opposing magnetic field. They are widely used in electric machines, electronics, and medical devices. Part I reviews the conventional manufacturing processes for commercial magnets, including Nd-Fe-B, Sm-Co, alnico, and ferrite in cast and …The desorption of hydrogen from NdFeB powder and unmilled material produced using hydrogen decrepitation as a premilling technique was investigated using a mass spectrometer to monitor the hydrogen partial pressure in the system as the sample was heated under vacuum from room temperature to approximately 1000 degrees C. A …

So exposure at LOW temperature to hydrogen leads the NdFeB pieces to react via intergranular fracturation (decrepitation), the mass of Nd2Fe14B grains forminfg a metal hydride with max ...

The method combines hydrogen decrepitation (HD) disintegration of the initial magnet, powder sieving and the Press-Less Process (PLP), where hydride powder is sintered in a graphite mold. Coercivities up to 534 kA/m were obtained in porous samples based on powder size d < 100 µm. Adding a ball milling step resulted in full density …

Sagawa obtained ultrafine NdFeB grain by innovative HD (hydrogen-decrepitation) + HDDR (hydrogenation-disproportionation-desorption-recombination) + helium jet milling process. It should be noted that the helium gas is more suitable than nitrogen gas to fabricate ultrafine powder due to its lighter mass fraction, and will also …Various efforts have been made in the past for direct recycling of spent NdFeB magnet using hydrogen decrepitation followed by resintering method (Zakotnik et al., 2009; Herraiz et al., 2016). In ...The process of hydrogen decrepitation (HD), which is used in the primary production and recycling of Nd magnets, takes place at low temperatures, even at room temperature, so that the entire microstructure decomposes only in powder form and the grain size is reduced. Hydrogen Decrepitation is a process step used in the production of Neodymium magnets to create extremely small grains in the material. Neodymium magnets must have very small grains averaging about 5 micrometers in order to have the best magnetic properties. But the grain sizes after casting are much larger than that, so they must be ground down ...Hydrogen Decrepitation (HD) has been used as an efficient and economical method in producing coarse NdFeB powder. This article studied the effects of hydrogen on the Nd-Dy-Fe-B magnets, such as HD ...A combination of hydrogen decrepitation (HD) and jet milling (JM) has been used to produce powder for the processing of permanent magnets. The procedure has proved to be very successful for both Nd-Fe-B (Neomax) alloys and the ND-Dy-Fe-Nb-B high coercivity alloys. The magnets produced by the HD/JM process showed excellent coercivities when …Over the last ten years several groups have been carrying out research into metal injection moulding (MIM) of neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) powders to produce isotropic or …The invention relates to a hydrogen decrepitation process for sintered Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets and belongs to the technical field of magnetic materials. The hydrogen decrepitation process includes melting metal materials, quickly solidifying the metal materials into cast pieces, activating the cast pieces under a certain condition, namely …The ultrafine magnet waste (particle size < 1 µm) contained around 50% rare earths mainly in the form of hydroxides as they are generated from the hydrogen decrepitation. The major phases in ultrafine NdFeB waste were Nd(OH) 3, Fe 2 O 3 and Fe phases. When ultrafine magnet waste was leached with hydrofluoric acid, all the iron …Oct 1, 2013 · The behavior of hydrogen absorption in the NdFeB Hydrogen Decrepitation process is affected by the shape of the NdFeB alloy, pressure and temperature curves of the reaction process, which makes the reaction process with characteristics of nonlinear, time-varying parameters and coupling. In this study, we proposed a state space modeling method to describe the dynamic mechanism model of the ...

A combination of hydrogen decrepitation (HD) and jet milling (JM) has been used to produce powder for the processing of permanent magnets. ... The procedure has proved to be very successful for both NdFeB (Neomax) alloys and the NdDyFeNbB high coercivity alloys. The magnets produced by the HD/JM process showed excellent …Nov 14, 2017 · Abstract: Hydrogen decrepitation (HD) is an effective and environmentally friendly technique for recycling of neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets. During the HD process, the NdFeB breaks down into a matrix phase (Nd2Fe14BHx) and RE-rich grain boundary phase. The grain boundary phase in the HD powder is <2 m in size. Due to the high strength and very compact structure of sintered NdFeB magnets, hydrogen decrepitation is a necessary step to break down the magnet mass. On the other hand, the resin-bonded NdFeB magnets have very low strength and can be easily crushed by heating and removing the resin and epoxy used in their fabrication. 39. 3.Instagram:https://instagram. st joseph animal control and rescue adoptionbigger by the dayrxrfbmhbesjfglis Mar 1, 2016 · The hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process for cast NdFeB alloys [1] has also been shown to be a technically and economically effective method for breaking down scrap sintered NdFeB magnets into a powder [2] and hence, for instance, for the separation of NdFeB-based magnets from end-of-life hard disk drive assemblies [3], [4]. percent27s flavor of the day watertown wiallen roth eastview 14 78 in dark oil rubbed bronze outdoor.htm High-temperature oxidation resistance of Nd–Fe–B magnetic powder is of great importance for its application in bonded magnet fields. In this work, the refinement and surface modification of Nd–Fe–B magnetic powders were integrated and achieved simultaneously. The effects of phosphoric acid, isopropyl tris-(dioctyl pyrophosphate …The subject of this paper is method (4) together with other aspects of the use of hydrogen in the processing of NdFeB-type magnets. 2. The hydrogen decrepitation process The manufacture of rare earth-transition metal magnets by the HD route was first proposed in a 1978 patent by Harris et al. [7]. percent27s degree The decrepitation process and related changes in the sample temperature are analysed to explain the experimentally observed weight gain curve of a Nd–Fe–B sample due to hydrogen uptake. It is shown that the expansion of the specific surface resulting from decrepitation of the sample is the most important parameter controlling …Novel hydrogen decrepitation behaviors of (La, Ce)-Fe-B strips. Jiaying Jin G. Bai +4 authors M. Yan. ... Doping with Dy/Tb is a current solution to improve the coercivity and the operating temperature of NdFeB magnets, by increasing the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the (Nd, Dy/Tb)2Fe14B (2:14:1) …